Played by athletes with visual impairments using a ball with bells inside, Goalball is among the most exciting team sports on the Paralympic programme.
Developed as a rehabilitation activity for injured soldiers returning from World War II, Goalball has since spread around the world and is now played in more than 100 countries.
Players are partially sighted or totally blind, but all wear eyeshades so those with varying degrees of visual impairment can compete together and to ensure fair play.
The game is played by two teams of three people on a court 18 metres long and 9m wide. Teams have up to six members, but only three are on court at a time. The aim is to score by rolling the ball at speed into the opposition's goal, while the other team attempts to block the ball with their bodies. After a ball is thrown, the defending players have 10 seconds to throw the ball back after one of them touches it.
The ball is made of hard rubber and has holes in it that allow bells inside to be heard as the ball moves. Goals extend across the full width of the court at either end and are 1.3m high. The team that scores the most goals is the winner.
Games are divided into two halves of 12 minutes each, and a golden goal rule is used if a game enters overtime (two three-minute halves).
Spectators must be quiet during play so that players can hear the ball and each other, but they are free to cheer when a goal is scored.
Goalball was introduced to the Games as a demonstration event at Toronto 1976, then added to the Paralympic programme as a full medal sport four years later in Arnhem. A women's competition first featured at the New York and Stoke Mandeville 1984 Games.
International Federation: International Blind Sports Federation
- Team tournament (Men/Women)
Strategy and precision in a battle for success
Powerful attacks, determined defence and elaborate strategies developed between the players on court and the support team on the bench make Goalball a compelling sport to watch.
Attackers stay as quiet as they can. They may throw some balls that bounce across the court, while throwing others faster or slower to deceive their opponents. They may make a swift counterattack or try to move away from the point where they caught the ball without making any noise.
Defenders must strive to locate the ball by listening for the bells inside it, the attacker's footsteps and the movement of the ball. They then lie across the court to form a wall. The key to an effective defence is cooperation to cover the goal without gaps.
The team on the bench analyses the attack and defence patterns of the opposition and develops tactics. They are forbidden from speaking during play, but convey information during time outs and the half-time break.
Lithuania's men, who won the gold medal at Rio 2016, and China's women, who took the silver medal at three consecutive Games from Beijing 2008 to Rio 2016, are among the sport's most prominent teams.
However, no country has won more than two gold medals across the 11 stagings so far, reflecting the sport's strength right across the world. The men's teams from Finland and Denmark, and the women's teams from Canada and the United States, have both stood on top of the podium twice.
With a new generation of players emerging since Rio 2016, the competition in Tokyo promises to be intense and fascinating.
Goalball players wear eyeshades with gauze eye patches underneath, to ensure that no player is advantaged or disadvantaged by the degree of their visual impairment. The sport has a penalty called an ‘eyeshades penalty’ - what is this?Answer
A：This penalty is awarded against any player on the court who touches their eyeshades without permission from the referee. If a player's eyeshades slip, they must ask the referee for permission to touch them. Breaking this rule results in a ‘personal penalty’ and the penalised player must defend the penalty shot.
- Makuhari Messe Hall C